Various businesses in Hawaii sell Plumeria cuttings that are pre-approved for travel back to the mainland and you can even buy them at the airport! I purchased mine at the Dole Plantation store when we were on Oahu. I brought my cutting home (it looked like a dead stick) and placed it in vermiculite and watered it every so often. After about three months I pulled out the cutting and to my surprise it had roots! It was even starting to grow a leaf bud.
At that point I repotted my cutting into a larger pot. This time I mixed in potting soil and vermiculite. After another few months I repotted it again into a mix of mostly potting soil and it will stay in the larger pot for quite a while. My cutting now has several leaves and seems to be very happy in a South window in full direct sun. You just need a little patience to grow a Plumeria! It was a long wait for something to happen initially.
These are some photos I took of Plumeria plants while in Hawaii this February if you are wondering what it will look like.
Update 2/28/2017 – Right now my plumeria is not looking good. It has dropped almost all of its leaves but I am crossing my fingers that it will pull through!